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Online ISSN: 1097-0274    Print ISSN: 0271-3586
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2001. Pages: 145-157

Published Online: 2 Feb 2001

Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


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 Article
Estimating historical exposures of workers in a beryllium manufacturing plant*
Wayne T. Sanderson, PhD *, Martin R. Petersen, PhD, Elizabeth M. Ward, PhD
Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio
email: Wayne T. Sanderson (wts1@cdc.gov)

*Correspondence to Wayne T. Sanderson, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio.

**This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Mention of company or product names does not constitute endorsement by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Keywords
beryllium; retrospective exposure matrix; lung cancer; case-control study

Abstract

Background
Beryllium is known to be toxic to the lungs, causing beryllium lung disease and associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airborne beryllium exposures have been monitored since the 1940s. This study describes methods used to measure airborne beryllium concentrations and how historical measurements from a beryllium manufacturing plant were used to estimate workers' exposures in a lung cancer case-control study.

Methods
Airborne beryllium concentrations had been measured using all-glass impingers, high-volume air filters, and personal respirable and total dust samplers. To provide consistency in exposure estimates over time, measurements collected by the other monitoring methods were converted to approximate the most frequently used high-volume, time-weighted average measurements. Because industrial hygiene measurements were not collected in every year for all jobs throughout the duration of the case-control study, exposure estimates had to be extrapolated from the existing measurements over time and across jobs.

Results
Over 7,000 historical measurements were available to estimate beryllium exposures of workers over time. Average exposures between jobs varied considerably and exposures for all jobs decreased dramatically between the 1940s and 1970s due to major plant production changes.

Conclusions
Although error in the exposure metrics for the cases and controls likely occurred due to limitations of the exposure assessment data, the exposure estimates for each job over time provided a reasonable, objective mechanism for categorizing workers by the relative exposures they were likely to have encountered during their tenure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 39:145-157, 2001. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Accepted: 11 November 2000

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/1097-0274(200102)39:2<145::AID-AJIM1002>3.0.CO;2-Y  About DOI


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